Council communism is a type of Revolutionary Marxism. One of its main arguments is that the natural form of working class organization is the worker's council.
While Leninists believe that the communist party is the vehicle of revolution that should seize power on behalf of the proletariat, council communists believe Marx's theory that the workers themselves must carry out the revolution, organized by worker's councils.
Council communists also disagree with syndicalists who believe that trade unions are the vehicle of revolution, that workers must organize in unions to defeat the capitalist class. The unions can be helpful in achieving small economic goals, however as an instrument of class warfare they generally do not work well. The union leaders capitulate to the increasing power of the capitalists, until it seems as if the workers are actually struggling against the unions themselves.
Council communists also believe that bourgeois parliamentarian democracy does not represent the interests of the people very effectively. In the parliamentarian system, all decisions are made by elected representatives, who may or may not obey the will of the people. In addition, once a representative is elected, they will continue to be a representative for a limited amount of time. If within that time the people realize that the representative is not someone hey would like representing them, it is too bad for them, because they must wait until the whole term is up.
In the worker's council system, workers form councils in the factory. This is the natural place for workers to form councils and it ensures that only the workers manage the state, which is one of the principles of the dictatorship of the proletariat. They choose delegates, people who will represent their interests. The delegate does not make decisions on his own of the right policies, he only acts as a messenger of what the people of his factory wish. If he goes against the people's wishes, then the workers can use their power of recall to instantly remove the delegate and replace him with someone else.
The delegates in a certain region meet with each other and pick a delegate among them, just like in the factory. This process repeats in ever larger regions until there is one council of delegates making decisions for the whole world.
The delegates in a factory make decisions for that factory. The delegates for the region make decisions for that region. The delegates for the even larger region make decisions for that even larger region.
Through these workers councils the workers also directly plan and manage the economy. In this way it is assured that the workers themselves own the means of production, not the state and not any class other than the proletariat.
Council communism rejects participation in bourgeois parliaments and reduces the role of the communist party to inciting the workers to revolution. The council communists believe that revolution is not a party affair.
After the class antagonisms cease to exist, the dictatorship of the proletariat will transform into communism, the classless, stateless, moneyless society with free access to goods. In communism the means of production are owned by all.
In communism the role of the workers councils will go from managing social issues and the economy to just managing the economy, signifying the withering away of the state.