STALIN (Dzhugashvili) Iosif Vissarionovich (psevd. - Koba and others.) (the December 21 1879, Mountains, now load;embark;stevedore - a March 5 1953, Moscow), soviet state and party figure, Hero of the Socialist Labour (1939), Hero of the SOVIET UNION (1945), Marshal of the SOVIET UNION (1943), Generalissimo of the SOVIET UNION (1945). From family of the shoemaker. After completion Goriyskogo spiritual school (1894) learned;learnt in Tiflisskoy heological seminary (in 1899 expelled). In 1898 has entered in georgian социал-democratic organization "Mesame-даси". In 1902-13 six once was subjected to the arrest, reference, four times run from places of the references. After 1903 has verged to bolshevik. In 1906-07 managed undertaking an expropriation in Zakavkazie. In 1907 one of the organizers and leaders Bakinskogo committee RSDRP. The Ardent supporter V. I. Lenin, on the initiative which in 1912 is co-opted in CK and Russian agency CK RSDRP. In 1917 members to editorial staffs of the newspaper "Truth", Politburo CK bolshevik, Military-revolutionary centre. In 1917-22 нарком on deals of the nationalities, in 1919-22 нарком of the state checking simultaneously, FATE, with 1918 members RVSR. In 1922-53 secretary generals CK parties. In 1920-h gg. in the course of fight for lesdership in parties and state, using party device and political intrigues, has the party and has installed in country totalitarian mode. Conducted the forced industrialization of the country and forcible collectivization. In horse. 20-30-h gg. Stalin has destroyed real and supposed adversary, initiator of the mass terror. With horse. 30-h gg. followed a policy rapprochements with fascist Germany (refer to. Soviet-german agreements 1939) that has brought about tragedies of folk in Great Domestic war. With 1941 chairmans SNK (REFER TO) USSR, at years of the war chairman GKO, нарком of the defence, Sovereign commander in-chief. In 1946-47 ministers of Armed power USSR. At years of the war will go on creation антигитлеровской to coalitions; origin "cold war" promoted after completion of the war. On 20-m convention KPSS (1956) N. S. Khrushchev to subjected to cutting a critic t. n. cult to personalities and activity Stalina.
Stalin Iosif Vissarionovich
ST ALIN (Dzhugashvili), Iosif Vissarionovich [6 (18) of the December 1878, Mountains, now load;embark;stevedore - a March 5 1953, Moscow], soviet political and statesman, high leader SSSR. since itself Stalin confirmed that was born 9 (21) of the December 1879, this date was shown official (the mistake was opened already after his(its) deaths).
Was born in family of the georgian shoemaker, through several years family распалась because of drunkenness father. In 1930-e gg. on Caucasus appeared the multiple legends about birth Iosifa (in father intended even travellier Przhevaliskogo, possible itself Stalin initiated such rumours). Maliyaik grew painful, beside he was found defect of the left hand and legs, in 1884 he carry pox.
In 1894 окончил Goriyskoe spiritual school, then learned;learnt in heological seminary, whence was expelled "for неявку on exam" in 1899 (on official version 1930-h gg. - for propaganda of the marxism). In 1896 was comprised of work mug самообразования that has brought about deterioration of his(its) relations with managament of the seminaries. In 1898 young seminary students has entered in социал-democratic organization and became actively to participate in propagandistic work amongst worker. Wrote the poetry, haved something published in newspaper "Iberia". In 1901 перешел on illegal position. In 1901-1902 gg. - a member Tiflisskogo and Batumskogo committee RSDRP. The Bolshevik with 1903 has Taken itself pen name Stalin. The Delegate Tammerforsskoy conferences RSDRP, where was met with Leninym, IV and V convention RSDRP. On IV convention in 1906 has espoused the section of the land between крестьянами and transfer her(it) in their private property, but under pressure Lenin has taken his(its) position (the nationalizing).
In 1902-1913 gg. six was once arrested, five once run. In 1906 married Catherine Svanidze (the sister of the revolutionary). She gave birth him YAkova (1908-1942), in 1908 has died from typhus at age 22 years. Stalin was one of the organizer expropriation in favour of bolshevik, for this in 1907 expelled Caucasian committees from RSDRP, but this decisions has not acknowledged. In 1907-1908 - a member Bakinskogo committee RSDRP. In 1912 on the initiative Lenin was is in absentia co-opted in CK and Russian agency CK RSDRP(b). Became be published as theorist, first of all on nationality question ("Marxism and nationality question", 1913). Espoused reconstruction an unity социал-democrat, wrote that "on graveyard realizable "full identity glance"" only. There was in 1913 is arrested and sent in reference in Siberia, in Turuhansk. In 1916 is called in army, but because of defect of the hand and legs was recognized unimproved to military service.
One of the leader bolshevik
After February revolution Stalin turned out to be in Petrograde, where first occupied the moderate political positions, in particular, allegorized against dethronement temporary government. Edited "Truth", was sent bolshevik as their representative in исполкоме Petrogradskogo advice. Has Raised an objection to "April thesis" Lenin, stated in them strategies of the outgrow to bourgeois revolution in socialist and slogan "Whole power advice!". But soon перешел on leninist positions. Stalin was elected by member agency VCIK from bolshevik. On VI convention RSDRP(b) at July-August 1917) has emerged with political report CK, was elected in narrow composition CK.
The member Politburo CK RSDRP was elected At October 1917 (b) and agency CK, in which at November 1917 aside from his(its) entered Lenin, Trockiy, Sverdlov. Fell into editorial staffs central organ bolshevik ("Worker and soldier", "Worker", "Proletarian" "Worker way"). The Member Military-revolutionary centre bolshevik and Petrogradskogo VRK. After mess of the editings on October 24 1917 has provided leaving the newspaper, explained purposes большевизма in the course of October upheaval. Actively participated in training and undertaking II convention advice.
After victory of the October revolution fell into bolshevik government, in which filled a position наркома nationalities (before 1923 ), simultaneously was a member to editorial staffs "Truths". One of the authors "Declarations of the rights folk to Russia", proclaimed right folk on self-determination up to branch. In 1918 was accredited VCIK on stocking up and export of bread on North Caucasus, member of the military advice North-Caucasian military neighborhood, member реввоенсовета South front. There was one of the leaders of the defence Caricyna, here сблизился with K. E. Voroshilovym, then with S. M. Woke;waked and the other commander to First mounted army, which become handhold Stalina in armies.
In 1918-1922 gg. - a member Revvoensoveta republics. Konfliktoval with L. D. Trockim, relations with which already in this time have gained the nature personal hostility. At October 1918 - a March 1919 gg. - a member CK KP (b) of the Ukraine, member his(its) foreign agency that is to say actual representative to communist parties of the Ukraine in CK RKP(b). At July-September 1919 - a member реввоенсовета West front, exceeding representative of the Advice worker-peasant defence Petrograda. At October 1919 - a January 1920 gg. - a member реввоенсовета South front, one of the organizer of the mess Denikina. A member реввоенсовета South-west front was During Soviet-polish war. The Chairman Central agency moslem organization RKP (b). The COUNCILMAN of the labour and defence, represented in him VCIK. In 1919-1922 gg. нарком of the state supervision (the worker-peasant inspection). The Escort ордена Red banners.
In 1918 married N. S. Alliluevoy (from family revolutionary), which gave birth the Vasiliya (1921-1962) and daughter Svetlanu (r.1926).
At the head партаппарата
In 1922 on the initiative Lenin and Kameneva Stalin was elected on right before founded post of the Secretary general CK RKP(b). The Careful pragmaticses, talented technologist authorities, he seemed the beautiful performer. Stalin was to establish order in placement of the party personnel(frames). In 1923 he entered the system "nomenclature", has organized the device to parties, officials which its выдвижением were obliged Stalinu. Growing of the influence of the device in 1920-e gg. has provided Stalinu success in внутрипартийной to fight.
Using disease Lenin, "triumvirate" Stalina, Kameneva and Zinovieva gradually concentrated the power in their own hand. In Staline персонифицировалась in eye Lenin danger of departmentalism. The Conflict between Leninym and Stalinym was shown in question about creation USSR. Stalin has offered the plan "автономизации", in accordance with which union bolshevik state were to fall into Russia on rights of the autonomous republics. Lenin has emerged categorically against, having offered federation of the equal republics. Stalin, have charge of undertaking national politicians, have to was comply with Leninym. the December 30 1922 Stalin has proclaimed formation USSR on his(its) first convention advice. But Lenin continued to criticize "автономизацию", considering that in practice Stalin continues to conduct "великодержавную politician", particularly in so named "georgian deal" 1922, when Stalin has supported the rough actions K. Ordzhonikidze against subordinated him leader of the communist parties load;embark;stevedore. In its letter to XII convention to parties Lenin wrote: "Tov. Stalin, made генсеком, сосредоточил in their own hand bounless power, and I not certain, is able he always it is enough carefully to use this power". Lenin has offered to change Stalina on this post. Return Lenin to political life at April 1923 meant political death Stalina. At March генсек, have charge of treatment вождя and practically insulated him(it) in located near Hutch, has provoked its roughness to wife Lenin Krupskoy sharp personal conflict with chieftain. Possible, Stalin tried thereby to represent the claim Lenin as purely personal. In answer Lenin has broken with Stalinym relations. But new fit disease has removed Lenin from political life.